LEGEND

LEGENDA RADEN KAMANDAKA

(LUTUNG KASARUNG)


Di Jawa Barat pada jaman dahulu kala ada sebuah Kerajaan Hindu yang besar dan cukup kuat, yaitu berpusat di kota Bogor. Kerajaan itu adalah Kerajaan "Pajajaran", pada saat itu raja yang memerintah yaitu Prabu Siliwangi. Beliau sudah lanjut usia dan bermaksud mengangkat Putra Mahkotanya sebagai penggantinya.

Prabu Siliwangi mempunyai tiga orang putra dan satu orang putri dari dua Permaisuri, dari permaisuri yang pertama mempunyai dua orang putra yaitu: Banyak Cotro dan Banyak Ngampar. Namun sewaktu Banyak Cotro dan Banyak Ngampar masih kecil ibunya telah meninggal.

Maka Prabu Siliwangi akhirnya kawin lagi dengan permaisuri yang kedua, yaitu Kumudaningsih. Pada waktu Dewi Kumuudangingsih diambil menjadi Permaisuri oleh Prabu Siliwangi, ia mengadakan perjanjian, bahwa jika kelak ia mempunyai putra laki-laki, maka putranyalah yang harus meggantikan menjadi raja di Pajajaran.

Dari perkawinannya dengan Dewi Kumudaningsih, Prabu Silliwangi mempunyai seorang putra dan seorang putri, yaitu: Banyak Blabur dan Dewi Pamungkas.

Pada suatu hari Prabu Siliwangi memanggil Putra Mahkotanya, Banyak Cotro dan Banyak Blabur untuk menghadap, maksudnya ialah Prabu Siliwangi akan mengangkat putranya untuk menggantikan menjadi raja di Pajajaran karena beliau sudah lajut usia.

Namun dari kedua Putra Mahkotanya belum ada yang mau diangkat menjadi raja di Pajajaran. Sebagai putra sulungnya Banyak Cokro mengajukan beberapa alasan, antara lain alasannya adalah:

• Untuk memerintahkan Kerajaan dia belum siap, karena belum cukup ilmu.

• Untuk memerintahkan Kerajaan seorang raja harus ada Permaisuri yang mendampinginya, sedangkan Banyak Cotro belum kawin.

Banyak Cotro mengatakan bahwa dia baru kawin kalau sudah bertemu dengan seorang putri yang parasnya mirip dengan ibunya. Oleh sebab itu Banyak Cotro meminta ijin pergi dari Kerajaan Pajajaran untuk mencaari putri yang menjadi idamannya..

Kepergian Banyak Cotro dari Kerajaan Pajajaran melalui gunung Tangkuban Perahu, untuk menghadap seorang pendeta yang bertempat di sana. Pendeta itu ialah Ki Ajar Winarong, seorang Pendeta sakti dan tahu untuk mempersunting putri yang di idam-idamkannya dapat tercapai.

Namun ada beberapa syarat yang harus dilakukan dan dipenuhi oleh Banyak Cotro, yaitu harus melepas dan menaggalkan semua pakaian kebesaran dari kerajaan dengan hanya memakai pakaian rakyat biasa. Dan ia harus menyamar dengan nama samaran "Raden Kamandaka"

Setelah Raden Kamandaka berjalan berhari-hari dari Tangkuban Perahu ke arah Timur, maka sampailah Raden Kamandaka kewilayah Kadipaten Pasir Luhur.

Secara kebetulan Raden Kamandaka sampai Pasir Luhur, betemu dengan Patih Kadipaten Pasir Luhur yaitu Patih Reksonoto. Karena Patih Reksonoto sudah tua tidak mempuunyai anak, maka Radenn Kamandaka akhirnya dijadikan anak angkat Patih Reksonoto merasa sangat bangga dan senang hatinya mempunyai Putra Angkat Raden Kamandaka yang gagah perkasa dan tampan, maka Patih Reksonoto saangat mencintainya.

Adapun yang memerintahkan Kadipaten Pasir Luhur adalah "Adi Pati Kanandoho". Beliau mempunyai beberapa orang Putri dan sudah bersuami kecuali yang paling bungsu yaitu Dewi Ciptoroso yang belum bersuami. Dewi Ciptoroso inilah seorang putri yang mempunyai wajah mirip Ibu raden Kamandaka, dan Putri inilah yng sedang dicari oeh Raden Kamandaka.

Suatu kebiasaan dari Kadipaten Pasir Luhur bahwa setiap tahun mengadakan upacara menangkap ikan di kali Logawa. Pada upacara ini semua keluarga Kadipaten Pasir Luhur beserta para pembesar dan pejabatan pemerintah turut menangkap ikan di kali Logawa.

Pada waktu Patih Reksonoto pergi mengikuti upacara menangkap ikan di kali Logawa, tanpa diketahuinya Raden Kamandaka secara diam-diam telah mengikutinya dari belakang. Pada kesempatan inilah Raden Kamandaka dapat bertemu dengan Dewi Ciptoroso dan mereka berdua saling jatuh cinta.

Atas permintaan dari Dewi Ciptoroso agar Raden Kamandaka pada malam harinya untuk dating menjumpai Dewi Ciptoroso di taman Kaputren Kadipaten Pasir Luhur tempat Dewi Ciptoroso berada. Benarlah pada malam harinya Raden Kamandaka dengan diam-diam tanpa ijin patih Resonoto, ia pun pergi menjumpai Dewi Ciptoroso yang sudah rindu menanti kedatangan Raden Kamandaka.

Namun keberadaan Raden Kamandaka di Taman Kaputren Bersama Dewi Ciptoroso tidak berlangsung lama. Karena tiba-tiba prajurit pengawal Kaputren mengetahui bahwa di daalam taman adaa pencuri yang masuk. Hal ini kemu kemudian dilaporkan oleh Adipatih Kandandoho.

Menanggapi laporan ini, maka Adipatih sangat marah dan memerintahkan praajuritnya untuk menangkap peencuri tersebut. Karena kesaktian daan ilmu ketangkasan yang dimiliki oleh Raden Kamandaka, maka Raden Kamandaka dapat meloloskan diri dari kepungan prajurit Pasir Luhur.

Sebelum Raden Kamandaka lolos daari Taman Kaputren, ia sempat mengatakan identitasnya. Bahwa ia bernama Raden Kamandaka putra dari Patih Reksonoto.

Hal inii di dengar olehh prajurit, dan melaporkan kepada Adipatih Kandandoohho. Mendengar hal innii maka Patih Reksonoto pun dipanggil dan harus menyerahkan putra nya . Perintaah ini dilaksanakan oleh Patih Reksonoto, walaupun dalam hatinya sangatlah berat. Sehimgga dengan siasat daari Patih Reksonoto, maka Raden Kamandaka dapat lari daan selamat daaripengejaran para prajurit.

Raden Kamandaka terjun masuk kedalam sungai dan menyelam mengikuti arus air sungai. Oleh Patih Reksonoto dan para prajurit yang mengejar,, dilapoprkan bahwa Raden Kamandaka dikatakan sudah mati didalam sugai. Mendengar berita ini Adipatih Kandandoho merasa lega dan puas. Nmun sebaliknya Dewi Ciptoroso yang setelah mendengar berita itu sangatlah muram dan sedih.

Sepanjang Raden Kamandaka menyelam mengikuti arus sungai bertemulah dengan seorang yang memancing di sungai. Orang tersebut bernama Rekajaya, Raden Kamandaka daan Rekajaya kemudian berteman baik dan menetap di desa Panagih. Di desa ini Raden Kamandaka diangkat anak oleh Mbok Kektosuro, seorang janda miskin di desa tersebbut.

Raden Kamandaka menjadi penggemar adu ayam. Kebetulan Mbok Reksonoto mempunyai ayam jago yang bernama "Mercu". Pada setiap penyabungan ayam Raden Kamandaka selalu menang dalam pertandingan, maka Raden Kamandaka menjadi sangat terkenal sebagai botoh ayam.

Hal ini tersiar saampai kerajaan Pasir Luhur, mendengar hal ini Adipatih Kandadoho menjadi marah dan murka. Beliau memerintahkan prajuritnya untuk menagkap hidup atau mati Raden Kamandaka .

Pada saat itu tiba-tiba datanglah seorang pemuda tampan mengaku dirinya bernama"Silihwarni" yang akan mengabdikan diri kepada Pasir Luhur, maka ia permohonannya di terima, tetapi asalkan ia harus dapat membunuh Raden Kamandaka. Untuk membuktikannya ia harus membawa darah dan hati Raden Kamandaka.

Sebenarnya Silihwarni adalah nama samaran. Nama itu sebenarnya adalah Banyak Ngampar Putra dari kejajaan Pajajaran, yaitu adik kandung dari Raden Kamandaka.

Ia oleh ayahnya Prabu Siliwangi ditugaskan untuk mencari saudara kandungnya yang pergi sudah lama belum kembali. Untuk mengatasi gangguan dalam perjalanan, ia dibekali pusaka keris Kujang Pamungkas sebagai senjatanya. Dan dia juga menyamar dengan nama Silihwarni, dan berpakaian seperti rakyat biasa.

Karena ia mendengar berita bahwa kakak kandungnya berada di Kadipaten Pasir Luhur, maka ia pun pergi kesana. Setelah Silihwarni menerima perintah daari Adipatih, pergilah ia dengan diikuti beberapa prajurit dan anjing pelacak menuju desa Karang Luas, tempat penyabungan ayam.

Ditempat inilah mereka bertemu. Namun keduanya sudah tidak mengenal lagi. Silihwari berpakaian seperti raknyat biasa sedangkan Raden Kamandaka berpakaian sebagai botoh ayam, dan wajahnya pucat karena menahan kernduan kepada kekasihnya.

Terjadilah persabungan ayan Raden Kamandaka dan Silihwarni, dengan tanpa disadari oleh raden kamandaka tiba-tiba Silihwrni menikam pinggang Raden Kamandaka dengan keris Kujang Pamungkasnya. Karena luka goresan keris itu tersebut darahpun keluar dengan deras. Namun karena ketangkasan Raden Kamandaka , iapun dapat lolos dari bahaya tersebut dan tempat ia dapat lolos itu dinamakan desa Brobosan, yang berarti ia dapat lolos dari bahaya.

Karena lukanya semakin deras mengeluarkan darah, maka iapun istirahat sebentar disuatu tempat, maka tempat itu dinamakan Bancran. Larinya Raden Kamandaka terus dikejar oleh Silihwarni dan prajurit. Pada suatu tempat Raden Kamandaka dapat menangkap anjing pelacaknya dan kemudian tempat itu di berinya nama desa Karang Anjing.

Raden Kamandaka terus lari kearah timur dan sampailah pada jalan buntu dan tempat ini ia memberi nama desa buntu. Pada akhirnya Raden Kamandaka sampailah disebuah Goa. Didalam Goa ini ia beristirahat dan bersembunyi dari kejaran Silihwarni. Silihwarni yang terus mengejar setelah sampai goa ia kehilangan jejak. Kemudian Silihwarnipun dari mulut goa tersebut berseru menantang Raden Kamandaka.

Setelah mendengar tantagan Silihwarni, Raden Kamandaka pun menjawab ia mengatakan identitasnya, bahwa ia adalah putra dari kerajaan Pajajaran namanya Banyak Cotro.

Setelah itu Silihwarnipun mengatakan identitasnya bahwa ia juga putra dari Kerajaan Pajajaran, bernama Banyak Ngampar. Demikian kata-kata ayang pengakuan antara Raden Kamandaka dan Silihwarni bahwa mereka adalah purta pajajaran, maka orang yang mendengar merupakan nama versi ke-2, untuk goa jatijajar tersebut. Kemudian mereka berdua berpeluka dan saling memaafkan.

Namun karena Silihwarni harus membawa bukti hati dan darah Raden Kamandaka, maka akhirnya anjing pelacaknya yang dipotong diambil darah dan hatinya. Dikatakan bahwa itu adalah hati dan darah Raden Kamandaka yang telah dibunuhnya.

Raden Kamandaka kemudian bertapa di dalam goa dan mendapat petunjuk , bahwa niatnya untuk mempersunting Dewi Ciptoroso akan tercapai kalau ia sudah mendapat pakaian "Lutung" dan ia disuruh supaya mendekat ke Kadipaten Pasir Luhur, yaitu supaya menetap di hutan Batur Agung, sebelah Barat Daya dari batu Raden.

Suatu kegemaran dari Adipatih Pasir Luhur adalah berburu. Pada suatu hari Adipatih dan semua keluarganya berburu, tiba-tiba bertemulah dengan seekor lutung yang sangat besar dan jinak. Yang akhirnya di tangkaplah lutung tersebut hidup-hidup.

Sewaktu akan dibawa pulang , tiba-tiba Rekajaya datang mengaku bahwa itu adalah lutung peliharaannya, dan mengatakan beredia membantu merawatnya jika lutung itu akan dipelihara di Kadipaten. Dan permohonan itu pun dikabulkan.

Setelah sampai di kadipaten para putri berebut ingin memelihara lutung tersebut. Selama di Kadipaten lutung tersebut tidak mau dikasih makan. Oleh sebab itu akhirnya oleh Adipatih lutung tersebut disayembarakan yaitu jika ada salah seoraang dari putrinya dapat memberi makan dan diterima oleh lutung tersebut maka ia lah yang akan memelihara lutung tersebut.

Ternyata makanan yang diterima oleh lutung tersebut hanyalah makanan dari Dewi Ciporoso, maka "Lutung Kasarung" itu menjadi peliharaan Dewi Ciptoroso. Pada malam hari lutung tersebut berubah wujud menjadi Raden Kamandaka. Sehingga hanya Dewi Ciptoroso yang tahu tentang hal tersebut. Pada siang hari ia berubah menjadi lutung lagi. Maka keadaan Dewi kini menjadi sangat gembira dan bahagia, yang selalu ditemani lutung kasarung.

Alkisah pada suatu hari raden dari Nusa Kambangan Prabu Pule Bahas menyuruh Patihnya untuk meminang Putri Bungsu Kadipaten Pasir Luhur Dewi Ciptoroso dan mengancam apabila pinangannya ditolak ia akan menghancurkan Kadipaten Pasir Luhur.

Atas saran dan permintaan dari Lutung Kasarung pinangan Raja Pule Bahas agar supaya diterima saja. Namun ada beberapa syarat yang haarus dipenuhi oleh raja Pule Bahas. Salah satunya ialah dalam pertemuan pengantin nanti Lutung Kasarung harus turut mendampingi Dewi Ciporoso.

Pada waktu pertemuan pengantin berlangsung, Raja Pule Bahas selalu diganggu oleh Lutung Kasarung yang selalu mendampingi Dewi Ciptoroso. Oleh sebab itu Raja Pule Bahas marah dan memukul Lutung Kasarung. Namun Lutung Kasarung telah siap berkelahi melawan Raja Pule Bahas.

Pertarungan Raja Pule Bahas dengan Lutung Kasarung terjadi sangat seru. Namun karena kesaktian dari Luung Kasarung, akhirnya Raja Pule Bahas gugur dicekik dan digigit oleh Lutung Kasarung.

Tatkala Raja Pule Bahas gugur maka Lutung Kasarung pun langsung menjelma menjadi Raden Kamandaka, dan langsung mengenkan pakaian kebesaran Kejajaan Pajajaran dan mengaku namanya Banyak Cotro. Kini Adipatih Pasir Luhur pun mengetahui hal yang sebenarnya adalah Raden Kamandaka dan Raden Kamandaka adalah Banyak Cotro dan Banyak Cotro adalah Lutung Kasarung putra mahkota dari kerajaan Pajajaran. Dan akhirnya ia dikawinkan dengan Dewi Ciptoroso.

Namun karena Raden Kamandaka sudah cacat pada waktu adu ayam dengan Silihwarni kena keris Kujang Pamungkas maka Raden Kamandaka tidak dapat menggantikan menjadi raja di Pajajaran.

Karena tradisi kerajaan Pajajaran, bahwa putra mahkota yang akan menggantikan menjadi raja tidak boleh cacat karena pusaka Kujang Pamungkas. Sehingga setelah ia dinikahkan dengan Dewi Ciptoroso, Raden Kamandaka hanya dapat menjadi Adipatih di Pasir Luhur Menggantikan mertuanya. Sedangkan yang menjadi Raja di Pajajaran adalah Banyak Blabur
Posted on 03:16 by ariwinata and filed under | 0 Comments »

PERKEMBANGAN PENULISAN SEJARAH INDONESIA

PERKEMBANGAN PENULISAN SEJARAH INDONESIA
Penulisan sejarah (historiografi) di Indonesia umumnya digolongkan kedalam tiga tahapan perkembangan yaitu historiografi tradisional, historiografi kolonial, dan historiografi modern Indonesia. Dan setiap historiografi tersebut masing-masing memililiki ciri-ciri yang berbeda dan jenis yang dihasilkanpun berbeda.

Historiografi Tradisional
Historiografi tradisional adalah tradisi penulisan sejarah yang berlaku pada masa setelah masyarakat Indonesia mengenal tulisan, baik pada Zaman Hindu-Budha maupun pada Zaman Islam. Ada pada abad 4 M sampai abad 17 M.
Hasil tulisan sejarah dari masa ini sering disebut sebagai naskah.
Contoh Historiografi tradisional:
Babad Tanah Jawi, Babad Kraton, Babad Diponegoro, Hikayat Hang Tuah, Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai, Hikayat Silsilah Raja Perak, Hikayat Tanah Hitu, Kronik Banjarmasin, dsb.

Adapun ciri-ciri historiografi tradisional yaitu:
· Penulisannya bersifat istana sentris yaitu berpusat pada keinginan dan kepentingan raja. Berisi masalah-masalah pemerintahan dari raja-raja yang berkuasa. Menyangkut raja dan kehidupan istana.
· Memiliki subjektifitas yang tinggi sebab penulis hanya mencatat peristiwa penting di kerajaan dan permintaan sang raja.
· Bersifat melegitimasi (melegalkan/mensahkan) suatu kekuasaan sehingga seringkali anakronitis (tidak cocok)
· Kebanyakan karya-karya tersebut kuat dalam genealogi (silsilah) tetapi lemah dalam hal kronologi dan detil-detil biografis.
· Pada umumnya tidak disusun secara ilmiah tetapi sering kali data-datanya bercampur dengan unsur mitos dan realitas (penuh dengan unsur mitos).
· Sumber-sumber datanya sulit untuk ditelusuri kembali bahkan terkadang mustahil untuk dibuktikan.
· Dipengaruhi oleh faktor budaya masyarakat dimana naskah tersebut ditulis sehingga merupakan hasil kebudayaan suatu masyarakat.
· Cenderung menampilkan unsur politik semata untuk menujukkan kejayaan dan kekuasaan sang raja.

Banyak sejarawan yang awalnya sampai tahun 1960-an tidak mau menggunakan naskah-naskah tersebut sebagai sumber atau referensi karya ilmiah. Akan tetapi, pada perkembangannya karena melalui berbagai penelitian membuktikan bahwa bayak hal yang ditulis dalam naskah tradisional tersebut dapat terungkap pula dalam sumber-sumber sejarah yang lain maka mereka mulai menganggap bahwa naskah/ historiografi tradisional tersebut dapat pula dijadikan sumber atau acuan sejarah.


Historiografi Kolonial
Ada pada abad 17-abad 20 M.
Historiografi kolonial merupakan historiografi warisan kolonial dan penulisannya digunakan untuk kepentingan penjajah.
Ciri-cirinya:
ü Tujuannya untuk memperkuat kekuasaan mereka di Indonesia. Jadi disusun untuk membenarkan penguasaan bangsa mereka terhadap bangsa pribumi (Indonesia). Sehingga untuk kepentingan tersebut mereka melupakan pertimbangan ilmiah.
ü Selain itu semuanya didominasi untuk tindakan dan politik kolonial.
ü Historiografi kolonial hanya mengungkapkan mengenai orang-orang Belanda dan peristiwa di negeri Belanda serta mengagung-agungkan peran orang Belanda sedangkan orang-orang Indonesia hanya dijadikan sebagai objek.
ü Historiografi kolonial memandang peristiwa menggunakan sudut pandang kolonial. Sifat historiografi kolonial eropasentris.
ü Ditujukan untuk melemahkan semanangat para pejuang atau rakyat Indonesia.

Seperti contohya: Orang Belanda menyebut ”pemberontakan” bagi setiap perlawanan yang dilakukan oleh daerah untuk melawan kekuasaan Belanda/ kekuasaan asing yang menduduki tanah airnya. Oleh Belanda itu dianggap sebagai ”perlawanan terhadap kekuasaannya yang sah sebagai pemilik Indonesia”. Seperti Perlawanan yang dilakukan oleh Diponegoro, Belanda menganggap itu sebagai ”Pemberontakan Diponegoro”.

Telah ada upaya untuk melakukan kritik terhadap beberapa tulisan orang Belanda seperti tulisan Geschiedenis van Nederlandsche-Indie (Sejarah Hindia Belanda) oleh Stapel yang dikritik J.C van Leur. Salah satu ungkapannya”jangan melihat kehidupan masyarakat hanya dari atas geladak kapal saja”, artinya jangan menuliskan masyarakat Hindia hanya dari sudut penguasa saja dengan mengabaikan sumber-sumber pribumi sehingga peranan pribumi tidak nampak sementara yang ada hanyalah aktivitas bangsa Belanda di Hindia.
Tetapi justru pendapat Stapel yang tenar di kalangan masyarakat Indonesia, salah satu pendapatnya yang masih dipercaya dan melekat dalam benak sebagian besar masyarakat Indonesia adalah bahwa bangsa Indonesia telah dijajah Belanda selama 350 tahun (1595-1545). Hal ini berarti bahwa bangsa Indonesia dijajah sejak tahun 1595 sewaktu Cornelis de Houtman berangkat dari negeri Belanda untuk mencari pulau penghasil rempah-rempah di dunia Timur. Dia sampai di Indonesia tahun 1596. Indonesia masih mengalami kekuasaan VOC (1602-1619), Inggris (1811-1816), Van den Bosh (1816-1830), Penghapusan Tanam Paksa(1830-1870), Liberalisme (1870-1900), Politik Etis (1900-1922), Sistem Administrasi Belanda (1922-1942), Jepang (1942-1945).


Historiografi Modern Indonesia/ historiografi nasional
Ada pada abad 20 M- sekarang. Setelah kemerdekaan bangsa Indonesia maka masalah sejarah nasional mendapat perhatian yang relatif besar terutama untuk kepentingan pembelajaran di sekolah sekaligus untuk sarana pewarisan nilai-nilai perjuangan serta jati diri bangsa Indonesia.
Ditandai dengan:
Ø Mulai muncul gerakan Indonesianisasi dalam berbagai bidang sehingga istilah-istilah asing khususnya istilah Belanda mulai diindonesiakan selain itu buku-buku berbahasa Belanda sebagian mulai diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia.
Ø Mulai Penulisan sejarah Indonesia yang berdasarkan pada kepentingan dan kebutuhan bangsa dan negara Indonesia dengan sudut pandang nasional.
Ø Orang-orang dan bangsa Indonesialah yang menjadi subjek/pembuat sejarah, mereka tidak lagi hanya sebagai objek seperti pada historiografi kolonial.
Ø Penulisan buku sejarah Indonesia yang baru awalnya hanya sekedar menukar posisi antara tokoh Belanda dan tokoh Indonesia.
Jika awalnya tokoh Belanda sebagai pahlawan sementara orang pribumi sebagai penjahat, maka dengan adanya Indonesianisasi maka kedudukannya terbalik dimana orang Indonesia sebagai pahlawan dan orang Belanda sebagai penjahat tetapi alur ceritanya tetap sama.

Keadaaan yang demikian membuat para sejarawan dan pengamat sejarah terdorong untuk mengadakan ”Kongres Sejarah Nasional” yang pertama yaitu pada tahun 1957. Pada kongres kedua namanya diubah menjadi ”Seminar Nasional Sejarah”, membicarakan mengenai rencana untuk pembuatan sebuah buku sejarah nasional baru dengan harapan dapat dijadikan semacam buku referensi.

Oleh karena itu penulisan sejarah yang seharusnya adalah:
1. Sebuah penulisan yang tidak sekedar mengubah pendekatan dari eropasentris menjadi indonesiasentris, tetapi juga menampilkan hal-hal baru yang sebelumnya belum sempat terungkap.
2. Penulisan sejarah dengan cara yang konvensional (yang hanya mengandalkan naskah sebagai sumber sejarah) yang bersifat naratif, deskriptif, kedaerahan, serta tema-tema politik dan penguasa diganti dengan cara penulisan sejarah yang kritis (struktural analitis)
3. Menggunakan pendekatan multidimensional.
Caranya yaitu dengan menggunakan teori-teori ilmu sosial untuk menjelaskan kejadiaan sejarah sesuai dengan dimensinya dengan menggunakan sumber-sumber yang lebih beragam daripada masa sebelumnya.
4. Mengungkapkan dinamika masyarakat Indonesia dari berbagai aspek kehidupan yang kemudian dapat dijadikan bahan kajian untuk memperkaya penulisan sejarah Indonesia.
Sebagai contoh:
Tulisan berjudul ”Pemberontakan Petani di Banten 1888” oleh Sartono Kartodirdjo, seorang sejarawan Indonesia pertama yang menggunakan metode multidimensional dalam penulisannya.

Penulisan sejarah Indonesia modern bertujuan untuk melakukan perbaikan dengan menggantiklan beberapa hal seperti:
· Adanya pandangan religio-magis serta kosmologis seperti tercermin dalam babad atau hikayat diganti dengan pandangan empiris-ilmiah.
· Adanya pandangan etnosentrisme diganti dengan pandangan nationsentris.
· Adanya pandangan sejarah kolonial-elitis diganti dengan sejarah bangsa Indonesia secara keseluruhan yang mencakup berbagai lapisan sosial.
Posted on 08:58 by ariwinata and filed under | 4 Comments »



Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II
Queen of the United Kingdom
Born: April, 21 1926 - Accession: February 6, 1952
We lost the American colonies because we lacked the
statesmanship to know the right time and the manner
of yielding what is impossible to keep.


Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth was born in London on April, 21 1926, first child of the Duke and Duchess of York
, subsequently King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Five weeks later she was christened in the chapel of Buckingham Palace and was given the names Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor. The Queen ascended the throne on February 6, 1952 upon the death of her father, King George VI. Her Coronation followed on June 2, 1953.

Princess Elizabeth had her early education at home. After her father succeeded to the throne in 1936 and she became heiress presumptive, her studies were extended to include lessons on constitutional history and law. After the Second World War Princess Elizabeth's public engagements grew in number and frequency. Her first official visit overseas took place in 1947, when she accompanied her parents and sister on a tour of South Africa.

Princess Elizabeth married Philip Mountbatten (4th cousin) in Westminster Abbey on November 20, 1947. Prince Charles, now the Prince of Wales and heir apparent to the throne, was born in 1948, the Princess Anne, now the Princess Royal, was born in 1950, the Prince Andrew, now the Duke of York, was born in 1960, and the Prince Edward, in 1964. The Queen and the Duke celebrated their silver
wedding anniversary in London in 1972.

In 1977, the Queen's Silver Jubilee was celebrated in the United Kingdom and throughout the Commonwealth. Accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh, the Queen travelled some 56,000 miles to share the anniversary with her people. 2002 marked the 50th anniversary of The Queen's Accession to the Throne. This milestone had previously been achieved by only five other British monarchs: Henry III, Edward III, James I, George III and Queen Victoria.

If you are aware of books, movies, databases, web sites or other information sources about Queen Elizabeth II or related subjects, or if you would like to comment, please send us email: rc@.lucidcafe.com.
Posted on 04:00 by ariwinata and filed under | 0 Comments »

Hitler a Dictator


How Hitler Became a Dictator
by Jacob G. Hornberger, Posted June 28, 2004

Whenever U.S. officials wish to demonize someone, they inevitably compare him to Adolf Hitler. The message immediately resonates with people because everyone knows that Hitler was a brutal dictator.

But how many people know how Hitler actually became a dictator? My bet is, very few. I’d also bet that more than a few people would be surprised at how he pulled it off, especially given that after World War I Germany had become a democratic republic.

The story of how Hitler became a dictator is set forth in The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, by William Shirer, on which this article is based.

In the presidential election held on March 13, 1932, there were four candidates: the incumbent, Field Marshall Paul von Hindenburg, Hitler, and two minor candidates, Ernst Thaelmann and Theodore Duesterberg. The results were:

Hindenburg 49.6 percent
Hitler 30.1 percent
Thaelmann 13.2 percent
Duesterberg 6.8 percent

At the risk of belaboring the obvious, almost 70 percent of the German people voted against Hitler, causing his supporter Joseph Goebbels, who would later become Hitler’s minister of propaganda, to lament in his journal, “We’re beaten; terrible outlook. Party circles badly depressed and dejected.”

Since Hindenberg had not received a majority of the vote, however, a runoff election had to be held among the top three vote-getters. On April 19, 1932, the runoff results were:

Hindenburg 53.0 percent
Hitler 36.8 percent
Thaelmann 10.2 percent

Thus, even though Hitler’s vote total had risen, he still had been decisively rejected by the German people.

On June 1, 1932, Hindenberg appointed Franz von Papen as chancellor of Germany, whom Shirer described as an “unexpected and ludicrous figure.” Papen immediately dissolved the Reichstag (the national congress) and called for new elections, the third legislative election in five months.

Hitler and his fellow members of the National Socialist (Nazi) Party, who were determined to bring down the republic and establish dictatorial rule in Germany, did everything they could to create chaos in the streets, including initiating political violence and murder. The situation got so bad that martial law was proclaimed in Berlin.

Even though Hitler had badly lost the presidential election, he was drawing ever-larger crowds during the congressional election. As Shirer points out,

In one day, July 27, he spoke to 60,000 persons in Brandenburg, to nearly as many in Potsdam, and that evening to 120,000 massed in the giant Grunewald Stadium in Berlin while outside an additional 100,000 heard his voice by loudspeaker.


Hitler’s rise to power

The July 31, 1932, election produced a major victory for Hitler’s National Socialist Party. The party won 230 seats in the Reichstag, making it Germany’s largest political party, but it still fell short of a majority in the 608-member body.

On the basis of that victory, Hitler demanded that President Hindenburg appoint him chancellor and place him in complete control of the state. Otto von Meissner, who worked for Hindenburg, later testified at Nuremberg,

Hindenburg replied that because of the tense situation he could not in good conscience risk transferring the power of government to a new party such as the National Socialists, which did not command a majority and which was intolerant, noisy and undisciplined.

Political deadlocks in the Reichstag soon brought a new election, this one in November 6, 1932. In that election, the Nazis lost two million votes and 34 seats. Thus, even though the National Socialist Party was still the largest political party, it had clearly lost ground among the voters.

Attempting to remedy the chaos and the deadlocks, Hindenburg fired Papen and appointed an army general named Kurt von Schleicher as the new German chancellor. Unable to secure a majority coalition in the Reichstag, however, Schleicher finally tendered his resignation to Hindenburg, 57 days after he had been appointed.

On January 30, 1933, President Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor of Germany. Although the National Socialists never captured more than 37 percent of the national vote, and even though they still held a minority of cabinet posts and fewer than 50 percent of the seats in the Reichstag, Hitler and the Nazis set out to to consolidate their power. With Hitler as chancellor, that proved to be a fairly easy task.

The Reichstag fire

On February 27, Hitler was enjoying supper at the Goebbels home when the telephone rang with an emergency message: “The Reichstag is on fire!” Hitler and Goebbels rushed to the fire, where they encountered Hermann Goering, who would later become Hitler’s air minister. Goering was shouting at the top of his lungs,

This is the beginning of the Communist revolution! We must not wait a minute. We will show no mercy. Every Communist official must be shot, where he is found. Every Communist deputy must this very day be strung up.

The day after the fire, the Prussian government announced that it had found communist publications stating,

Government buildings, museums, mansions and essential plants were to be burned down... . Women and children were to be sent in front of terrorist groups.... The burning of the Reichstag was to be the signal for a bloody insurrection and civil war.... It has been ascertained that today was to have seen throughout Germany terrorist acts against individual persons, against private property, and against the life and limb of the peaceful population, and also the beginning of general civil war.

So how was Goering so certain that the fire had been set by communist terrorists? Arrested on the spot was a Dutch communist named Marinus van der Lubbe. Most historians now believe that van der Lubbe was actually duped by the Nazis into setting the fire and probably was even assisted by them, without his realizing it.

Why would Hitler and his associates turn a blind eye to an impending terrorist attack on their national congressional building or actually assist with such a horrific deed? Because they knew what government officials have known throughout history — that during extreme national emergencies, people are most scared and thus much more willing to surrender their liberties in return for “security.” And that’s exactly what happened during the Reichstag terrorist crisis.

Suspending civil liberties

The day after the fire, Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to issue a decree entitled, “For the Protection of the People and the State.” Justified as a “defensive measure against Communist acts of violence endangering the state,” the decree suspended the constitutional guarantees pertaining to civil liberties:

Restrictions on personal liberty, on the right of free expression of opinion, including freedom of the press; on the rights of assembly and association; and violations of the privacy of postal, telegraphic and telephonic communications; and warrants for house searches, orders for confiscations as well as restrictions on property, are also permissible beyond the legal limits otherwise prescribed.

Two weeks after the Reichstag fire, Hitler requested the Reichstag to temporarily delegate its powers to him so that he could adequately deal with the crisis. Denouncing opponents to his request, Hitler shouted, “Germany will be free, but not through you!” When the vote was taken, the result was 441 for and 84 against, giving Hitler the two-thirds majority he needed to suspend the German constitution. On March 23, 1933, what has gone down in German history as the “Enabling Act” made Hitler dictator of Germany, freed of all legislative and constitutional constraints.

The judiciary under Hitler

One of the most dramatic consequences was in the judicial arena. Shirer points out,

Under the Weimar Constitution judges were independent, subject only to the law, protected from arbitrary removal and bound at least in theory by Article 109 to safeguard equality before the law.

In fact, in the Reichstag terrorist case, while the court convicted van der Lubbe of the crime (who was executed), three other defendants, all communists, were acquitted, which infuriated Hitler and Goering. Within a month, the Nazis had transferred jurisdiction over treason cases from the Supreme Court to a new People’s Court, which, as Shirer points out,

soon became the most dreaded tribunal in the land. It consisted of two professional judges and five others chosen from among party officials, the S.S. and the armed forces, thus giving the latter a majority vote. There was no appeal from its decisions or sentences and usually its sessions were held in camera. Occasionally, however, for propaganda purposes when relatively light sentences were to be given, the foreign correspondents were invited to attend.

One of the Reichstag terrorist defendants, who had angered Goering during the trial with a severe cross-examination of Goering, did not benefit from his acquittal. Shirer explains:

The German communist leader was immediately taken into “protective custody,” where he remained until his death during the second war.

In addition to the People’s Court, which handled treason cases, the Nazis also set up the Special Court, which handled cases of political crimes or “insidious attacks against the government.” These courts

consisted of three judges, who invariably had to be trusted party members, without a jury. A Nazi prosecutor had the choice of bringing action in such cases before either an ordinary court or the Special Court, and invariably he chose the latter, for obvious reasons. Defense lawyers before this court, as before the Volksgerichtshof, had to be approved by Nazi officials. Sometimes even if they were approved they fared badly. Thus the lawyers who attempted to represent the widow of Dr. Klausener, the Catholic Action leader murdered in the Blood Purge, in her suit for damages against the State were whisked off to Sachsenhausen concentration camp, where they were kept until they formally withdrew the action.

Even lenient treatment by the Special Court was no guarantee for the defendant, however, as Pastor Martin Niemoeller discovered when he was acquitted of major political charges and sentenced to time served for minor charges. Leaving the courtroom, Niemoeller was taken into custody by the Gestapo and taken to a concentration camp.

The Nazis also implemented a legal concept called Schutzhaft or “protective custody” which enabled them to arrest and incarcerate people without charging them with a crime. As Shirer put it,

Protective custody did not protect a man from possible harm, as it did in more civilized countries. It punished him by putting him behind barbed wire.

On August 2, 1934, Hindenburg died, and the title of president was abolished. Hitler’s title became Fuehrer and Reich Chancellor. Not surprisingly, he used the initial four-year “temporary” grant of emergency powers that had been given to him by the Enabling Act to consolidate his omnipotent control over the entire country.

Accepting the new order

Oddly enough, even though his dictatorship very quickly became complete, Hitler returned to the Reichstag every four years to renew the “temporary” delegation of emergency powers that it had given him to deal with the Reichstag-arson crisis. Needless to say, the Reichstag rubber-stamped each of his requests.

For their part, the German people quickly accepted the new order of things. Keep in mind that the average non-Jewish German was pretty much unaffected by the new laws and decrees. As long as a German citizen kept his head down, worked hard, took care of his family, sent his children to the public schools and the Hitler Youth organization, and, most important, didn’t involve himself in political dissent against the government, a visit by the Gestapo was very unlikely.

Keep in mind also that, while the Nazis established concentration camps in the 1930s, the number of inmates ranged in the thousands. It wouldn’t be until the 1940s that the death camps and the gas chambers that killed millions would be implemented. Describing how the average German adapted to the new order, Shirer writes,

The overwhelming majority of Germans did not seem to mind that their personal freedom had been taken away, that so much of culture had been destroyed and replaced with a mindless barbarism, or that their life and work had become regimented to a degree never before experienced even by a people accustomed for generations to a great deal of regimentation.... The Nazi terror in the early years affected the lives of relatively few Germans and a newly arrived observer was somewhat surprised to see that the people of this country did not seem to feel that they were being cowed.... On the contrary, they supported it with genuine enthusiasm. Somehow it imbued them with a new hope and a new confidence and an astonishing faith in the future of their country.


Jacob Hornberger is founder and president of The Future of Freedom Foundation. Send him email.

This article originally appeared in the March 2004 edition of Freedom Daily.

http://www.fff.org/freedom/fd0403a.asp
Posted on 02:49 by ariwinata and filed under | 0 Comments »

Influenza A(H1N1) kill of the people

About the disease
1 May 2009
How do people become infected with influenza A(H1N1)?
Outbreaks in humans are now occurring from human-to-human transmission. When infected people cough or sneeze, infected droplets get on their hands, drop onto surfaces, or are dispersed into the air. Another person can breathe in contaminated air, or touch infected hands or surfaces, and be exposed. To prevent spread, people should cover their mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing, and wash their hands regularly.

What are the signs and symptoms of infection?
Early signs of influenza A(H1N1) are flu-like, including fever, cough, headache, muscle and joint pain, sore throat and runny nose, and sometimes vomiting or diarrhoea.

Regarding study of the first outbreak, have you received any feedback from the WHO team sent to Mexico to investigate the outbreak?


Teams are already sending epidemiological evidence but we will know more over the next few days.

Is there any confirmation of transmission between pigs and humans at this point?

No.
Is there any information on the economic impact of the outbreak so far?

No.
Why are we so worried about this pandemic possibility when thousands die every year from seasonal epidemics?

Seasonal epidemics occur every year and we are able to treat the virus with seasonal vaccines. A pandemic is a worldwide epidemic. It is a new virus and one to which the populations will have no immunity.





Influenza A(H1N1) - update
6 May 2009 -- As of 06:00 GMT, 6 May 2009, 22 countries have officially reported 1516 cases of influenza A (H1N1) infection.
Mexico has reported 822 laboratory confirmed human cases of infection, including 29 deaths. The United States has reported 403 laboratory confirmed human cases, including one death.

The following countries have reported laboratory confirmed cases with no deaths - Austria (1), Canada (165), China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (1), Colombia (1), Costa Rica (1), Denmark (1), El Salvador (2), France (4), Germany (9), Guatemala (1), Ireland (1), Israel (4), Italy (5), Netherlands (1), New Zealand (6), Portugal (1), Republic of Korea (2), Spain (57), Switzerland (1) and the United Kingdom (27).

Related links
Map of the spread of Infuenza A(H1N1): number of laboratory confirmed cases and deaths [jpg 416kb]
As of 6 May 2009, 06:00 GMT

Influenza A(H1N1) web site
Daily updates will be posted on this site.

It is considered prudent for people who are ill to delay international travel and for people developing symptoms following international travel to seek medical attention, in line with guidance from national authorities. Individuals are advised to wash hands thoroughly with soap and water on a regular basis and should seek medical attention if they develop any symptoms of influenza-like illness.
WHO advises no restriction of regular travel or closure of borders.
There is no risk of infection from this virus from consumption of well-cooked pork and pork products.

Further information on the situation will be available on the WHO website on a regular basis.
Posted on 10:35 by ariwinata and filed under | 0 Comments »

Malin Kundang - An Indonesian Myth

Malin Kundang
A long time ago, in a small village near the beach in West Sumatera, lived a woman and her son, Malin Kundang. Malin Kundang’s father had passed away when he was a baby, and he had to live hard with his mother.

Malin Kundang was a healthy, dilligent, and strong child. He usually went to the sea to catch fish, and brought it to his mother, or sold it in the town.
One day, when Malin Kundang was sailing as usual, he saw a merchant’s ship which was being raided by a small band of pirates. With his brave and power, Malin Kundang defeated the pirates. The merchant was so happy and asked Malin Kundang to sail with him. Malin Kundang agreed.

Many years later, Malin Kundang became a wealthty merchant, with a huge ship, loads of trading goods, many ship crews, and a beautiful wife. In his journey, his ship landed on a beach. The villagers reconigzed him, and the news ran fast in the town: Malin Kundang became a rich man and now he is here. His mother, in deepful sadnees after years of loneliness, ran to the beach to meet her beloved son again.

When the mother came, Malin Kundang, in front of his well dressed wife, his crews and his own gloriness, denied to meet that old, poor and dirty woman. For three times she begged Malin Kundang and for three times yelled at him. At last Malin Kundang said to her “Enough, old woman! I have never had a mother like you, a dirty and ugly peasant!” Then he ordered his crews to set sail.

Enraged, she cursed Malin Kundang that he would turn into a stone if he didn’t apologize. Malin Kundang just laughed and set sail. In the quiet sea, suddenly a thunderstorm came. His huge ship was wrecked and it was too late for Malin Kundang to apologized. He was thrown by the wave out of his ship, fell on a small island, and suddenly turned into stone.



Another Version
The legendary story is said to be originated here in Padang where the remains of “Batu Malin Kundang” is located.

Malin Kundang who hails from a poor family. Just like any other Minang men, Malin Kundang decided to travel elsewhere to seek good fortune, leaving behind his old mother. His life changed when he married the daughter of a rich man in Siam. Soon after achieving success and gaining great fortune he sailed back homeward on his own ship to Padang together with his wife and crews.

Upon hearing of Malin Kundang’s return, his mother rushed to the beach to meet her long lost son. Unfortunately, Malin Kundang felt ashamed upon looking at his old and poor mother - he was a rich man with fine clothing and a beautiful wife while his mother was looking ragged and poor as she was. In his undisguised disgust he ignored his mother, refused to greet her and returned to his ship.

Humiliated and heartbroken by her arrogant son’s behavior, his mother fell to her knees in desperation and prayed to God asking that her son be punished for what he did. Soon a terrible storm rose up and Malin Kundang’s ship was wrecked upon the rocks. Realising his mistake and sin for ignoring his mother, the badly injured Malin Kundang tried to get ashore to seek forgiveness from his mother but as he crawled on his hands and knees he was suddenly turned into stone.

Until today, a stone that from a certain angle resembles the figure of a man on his hands and knees with his head seemingly buried in the rock can still be found here in Pantai Air Manis. It is said that Malin Kundang has been forced to stay on the beach forever, begging for forgiveness from his mother. Around this rocky figure barrels and ropes have been carved into the stone to represent the shipwreck washed up on the shore. The tale of an ungratefull son makes the tranquil Pantai Air Manis a legendary location to visit that may offer some lesson in life.
Posted on 10:21 by ariwinata and filed under | 0 Comments »

Seminar Nasional Pendidikan


“Mengukir Kembali Makna Kebangkitan Nasional Dalam Pendidikan”






DASAR PEMIKIRAN
101 Tahun sudah hari Kebangkitan Nasional diperingati dengan sesuatu yang sifatnya seremonial belaka, usaha-usaha perbaikan di berbagai sektor belum memperlihatkan perbaikan yang signifikan, hasilnya bangsa ini masih belum mampu bangkit dari keterpurukan yang selama ini membelenggu. Kemiskinan, kelaparan, kebodohan serta berbagai pemandangan yang memprihatinkan seolah tidak pernah lepas dari potret masyarakat negeri ini.

Dalam bidang pendidikan 101 tahun hari kebangkitan nasional memiliki makna yang mendalam dimana 101 tahun yang lalu Budi Utomo membawakan setitik cahaya ditengah kegelapan bangsa ini yang terbodohkan akibat penjajahan yang begitu panjang oleh kaum penjajah, sejak saat itulah tekad untuk bangkit dari keterpurukan terhujam dalam jiwa setiap anak bangsa negeri ini. Hal tersebut merupakan salah satu gambaran bahwa pendidikan merupakan sektor yang sangat menentukan untuk menuju kebangkitan suatu bangsa dari keterpurukan akibat semua bentuk keterjajahan. Banyak contoh yang bisa kita jadikan cerminan dimana sektor pendidikan memiliki kontribusi besar dalam kebangkitan suatu bangsa, Negara Jepang dapat bangkit dari keterpurukan akibat di bom atom oleh sekutu, akhirnya bisa bangkit serta maju seperti saat ini. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah begitu perhatiannya pemimpin saat itu untuk mengutamakan sektor pendidikan sebagai Leading Sektor dalam usaha untuk membangkitkan sebuah bangsa dari keterpurukan.

Sektor pendidikan seolah luput dari perhatian para pemegang kebijakan di negeri ini, yang seharusnya mendapatkan perhatian yang baik dari para pemegang kebijakan di negeri ini. Dimulai dari anggaran pendidikan yang sampai saat ini belum sesuai dengan konstitusi, kesejahteraan guru yang belum terperhatikan, banyaknya angka putus sekolah, belum meratanya sarana dan prasarana yang menunjang, sulitnya pendidikan diakses secara merata oleh seluruh masyarakat hingga permasalahan seringkalinya kebijakan-kebijakan para pemimpin bangsa ini yang justru menjadikan terhambatnya perkembangan sektor pendidikan di negara ini.

Potret yang memprihatinkan yang telah digambarkan di atas bukan untuk mengarahkan pada sebuah pesimisme dari sebuah perjuangan, namun diharapkan bisa menjadi sebuah lecutan semangat untuk kita semua bahu membahu bangkit dari keterpurukan yang melanda negeri ini. Dari acara Seminar Nasional Pendidikan ini diharapkan bukan hanya menghasilkan terpaparkanya permasalahan yang terjadi pada sektor pendidikan namun dapat terhasilkannya sebuah solusi penyelesaian dari permasalahan-permasalahan yang ada, sehingga kita semua –Bangsa Indonesia- dapat memberikan sebuah kontribusi untuk menuju kebangkitan Indonesia dalam pendidikan.

LANDASAN KEGIATAN
Landasan Pemikiran
Tri Dharma Perguruan Tinggi
- Pendidikan
- Penelitian
- Pengabdian

Landasan Operasional
- PP Nomor 60 Tentang Perguruan Tinggi Negeri
- KepMenDikBud RI No.155 Tentang Pedoman Umum Organisasi Kemahasiswaan di Perguruan Tinggi
- UU No. 20 Tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional
- UU Guru dan Dosen
- GBPK HIMAS Periode 2008-2009
- Program Kerja HIMAS Periode 2008-2009

TUJUAN DAN TARGET KEGIATAN
TUJUAN
- Merefleksikan makna Kebangkitan Nasional dalam membangkitkan pendidikan nasional
- Mengetahui serta memahami permasalahan-permasalahan sektor pendidikan nasional
- Menyatukan persepsi dari elemen-elemen yang fokus terhadap permasalahan pendidikan untuk bersama-sama bergerak dalam mengontrol kebijakan-kebijakan pemerintah untuk sektor pendidikan
- Memberikan pemahaman kepada khalayak umum mengenai kebijakan pemerintah dalam hal implementasi anggaran pendidikan 20 %.

TARGET
- Terpaparkannya permasalahan-permasalahan faktual dalam sektor pendidikan nasional
- Dari pemaparan yang telah dilakukan peserta diharapkan memiliki penilaian terhadap kondisi sektor pendidikan nasional saat ini



NAMA KEGIATAN
SEMINAR NASIONAL PENDIDIKAN

TEMA KEGIATAN
Tema dari kegiatan ini adalah:
“Mengukir Kembali Makna Kebangkitan Nasional Dalam Pendidikan”

SASARAN KEGIATAN
- Mahasiswa UPI
- Guru se-Jawa Barat dan luar Jawa Barat
- Elemen-elemen pemerhati pendidikan

WAKTU DAN TEMPAT
Waktu : 14 Mei 2009
Tempat : Balai Pertemuan Umum (BPU) UPI

AGENDA ACARA SEMINAR NASIONAL
“Mengukir Kembali Makna Kebangkitan Nasional Dalam Pendidikan”
Kamis, 14 Mei 2009


Seminar Sessi Pertama
Tema : Kebangkitan Nasional Pendidikan
1. Makna Kebangkitan Nasional Bagi Pendidikan Indonesia: Sebuah Refleksi Terhadap Mutu Pendidikan
Pemateri : Asviwarman Adam (Peneliti LIPI)
2. Upaya Pemerintah Dalam Mengaktualisasikan Makna Kebangkitan Nasional dalam Pendidikan
Pemateri : Menteri Pendidikan Nasional*
3. Realitas Mutu Pendidikan Indonesia Dewasa ini
Pemateri : DR. Yudi Krisnandi ME (Anggota DPR RI)
Seminar Sessi Kedua
Tema : Implementasi Anggaran Pendidikan 20% antara Harapan dan Tantangan
1. Implementasi Anggaran Pendidikan 20% untuk Meningkatkan mutu Pendidikan
Pemateri :Dirjen Dikdasmen*
2. Inovasi Pembelajaran Sebagai Tuntutan Bagi Guru Terhadap Realisasi Anggaran Pendidikan 20%
Pemateri : Dr. Dadang Supardan, M.Pd.
3. Realitas Implementasi Anggaran Pendidikan 20% Antara Harapan dan Tuntutan
Pemateri : Suparman (Ketua FGII)

Biaya pendaptaran peserta:

Mahasiswa UPI Rp 50.000/orang
Mahasiswa luar UPI Rp 75.000/orang
Umum Rp 100.000/orang

KETERANGAN

1. Untuk pembayaran dapat dilakukan melalui :
BNI Cabang UPI
Jalan Dr. Setiabudi 229 Bandung 40154
No Rekening 0119283790 a.n Nuri Pramita Widya

2. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut dapat menghubungi
Sekretariat SEMINAR NASIONAL PENDIDIKAN
Gedung Olahraga (Gedor) UPI
Jl. Setiabudhi 229 Bandung 40154
Cp : 08172388986 (Deny) - 085659355663 (M. Sobar) – 085724062490 (Asep)
Facebook: rastulang@yahoo.com


Posted on 02:08 by ariwinata and filed under | 0 Comments »

Prambanan, the Most Beautiful Hindu Temple in the World

The Most Beautiful Hindu Temple in the World


Prambanan temple is extraordinarily beautiful building constructed in the tenth century during the reigns of two kings namely Rakai Pikatan and Rakai Balitung. Soaring up to 47 meters (5 meters higher than Borobudur temple), the foundation of this temple has fulfilled the desire of the founder to show Hindu triumph in Java Island. This temple is located 17 kilometers from the city center, among an area that now functions as beautiful park.

There is a legend that Javanese people always tell about this temple. As the story tells, there was a man named Bandung Bondowoso who loved Roro Jonggrang. To refuse his love, Jonggrang asked Bondowoso to make her a temple with 1,000 statues only in one-night time. The request was nearly fulfilled when Jonggrang asked the villagers to pound rice and to set a fire in order to look like morning had broken. Feeling to be cheated, Bondowoso who only completed 999 statues cursed Jonggrang to be the thousandth statue.

Prambanan temple has three main temples in the primary yard, namely Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva temples. Those three temples are symbols of Trimurti in Hindu belief. All of them face to the east. Each main temple has accompanying temple facing to the west, namely Nandini for Shiva, Angsa for Brahma, and Garuda for Vishnu. Besides, there are 2 flank temples, 4 kelir temples and 4 corner temples. In the second area, there are 224 temples.

Entering Shiva temple, the highest temple and is located in the middle, you will find four rooms. One main room contains Shiva statue, while the other three rooms contain the statues of Durga (Shiva's wife), Agastya (Shiva's teacher), and Ganesha (Shiva's son). Durga statue is said to be the statue of Roro Jonggrang in the above legend.

In Vishnu temple, to the north of Shiva temple, you will find only one room with Vishnu statue in it. In Brahma temple, to the south of Shiva temple, you find only room as well with Brahma statue in it.

Quite attractive accompanying temple is Garuda temple that is located close to Vishnu temple. This temple keeps a story of half-bird human being named Garuda. Garuda is a mystical bird in Hindu mythology. The figure is of golden body, white face, red wings, with the beak and wings similar to eagle's. It is assumed that the figure is Hindu adaptation of Bennu (means 'rises' or 'shines') that is associated with the god of the Sun or Re in Old Egypt mythology or Phoenix in Old Greek mythology. Garuda succeeded in saving his mother from the curse of Aruna (Garuda's handicapped brother) by stealing Tirta Amerta (the sacred water of the gods).

Its ability to save her mother made many people admire it to the present time and it is used for various purposes. Indonesia uses the bird as the symbol of the country. Other country using the same symbol is Thailand, with the same reason but different form adaptation and appearance. In Thailand, Garuda is known as Krut or Pha Krut.

Prambanan also has panels of relief describing the story of Ramayana. Experts say that the relief is similar to the story of Ramayana that is told orally from generation to generation. Another interesting relief is Kalpataru tree that - in Hindu - the tree is considered tree of life, eternity and environment harmony. In Prambanan, relief of Kalpataru tree is described as flanking a lion. The presence of this tree makes experts consider that Javanese society in the ninth century had wisdom to manage its environment.

Just like Garuda, Kalpataru tree is also used for various purposes. In Indonesia, Kalpataru is used as the logo of Indonesian Environment Institution. Some intellectuals in Bali even develop "Tri Hita Karana" concept for environment conservation by seeing Kalpataru relief in this temple. This tree of life is also seen in the gunungan (the puppet used as an opening of traditional puppet show or wayang kulit). This proves that relief panels in Prambanan have been widely known throughout the world.

If you see the relief in detail, you will see many birds on them; they are real birds as we can see on the earth right now. Relief panels of such birds are so natural that biologists can identify their genus. One of them is the relief of the Yellow-Crest Parrot (Cacatua sulphurea) that cites unanswered question. The reason is that the bird only exists in Masakambing Island, an island in the middle of Java Sea. Then, did the bird exist in Yogyakarta? No body has succeeded in revealing the mystery.

You can discover many more things in Prambanan. You can see relief of Wiracarita Ramayana based on oral tradition. If you feel tired of enjoying the relief, you can take a rest in the beautiful garden in the complex. Since 18 September 2006, you can enter zone 1 area of Prambanan temple. The damage caused by the earthquake on 27 May 2006 is being reconstructed. Please come and enjoy Prambanan temple.

Posted on 01:55 by ariwinata and filed under | 0 Comments »

Beautiful of Borobudur Stupa, Java, Indonesia

Borobudur Stupa, Java, Indonesia

Sometime before the 5th century AD, the influence of Hinduism and Buddhism spread southward from the mainland of southeast Asia to the islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali and a few others in the archipelago currently called Indonesia. (It is misleading to think of all of Indonesia as either an ancient empire or the province of any particular religion. The vast archipelago of over 13,000 islands became the nation of Indonesia only in 1949 and only a few of its major islands were ever settled or much influenced by Hinduism, Buddhism or Islam).

There are no archaeological remains of temples in the Indianized states of Java prior to the end of the seventh century as the early Hindu structures were built of wood and have long since decayed in the moist tropic climate. The first stone temples, Shiva shrines constructed during the eighth century, are found high on the Dieng plateau, the name Dieng meaning 'the place of the gods'. The greatest concentration of Javanese sacred architecture, however, lies on the plain of Kedu, some 42 kilometers north-west of the present city of Yogyakarta. Here stands the beautiful Hindu temple complex of Prambanam and the world famous Hindu/Buddhist temple of Borobudur.

Borobudur, a name deriving from an expression meaning 'Mountain of accumulation of merits of the ten states of Bodhisattva' is commonly thought of as a Buddhist structure, yet its initial construction was planned and conducted by Hindu builders sometime around 775AD. The enormous first and second terraces were completed by a declining Hindu dynasty, construction was then halted for some years, and later, from 790 to 835 AD, the Buddhist Sailendra dynasty continued and finally completed the great stupa. The huge stone mass might have then been permanently abandoned, for it was difficult to adapt to the needs of Buddhism. However, leaving in evidence such an obvious manifestation of Hinduism was probably not deemed politically correct and thus the unfinished Shiva temple was transformed into the world's largest Buddhist stupa.

After 832 AD the Hindu dynasty of Sanjaya began to reunify central Java and soon reappropriated the Buddhist monuments built by the Sailendra. Although the Sanjaya were themselves Hindu, they ruled over a Buddhist majority and thus, while some Hindu modifications and ornamentations were done on Borobudur, the stupa remained a place of Buddhist use. During the 10th and 11th centuries there was a transfer of power from central Java to the east, and the great stupa fell into decline. For centuries the site lay forgotten, buried under layers of volcanic ash and jungle growth. In 1815 Europeans cleared the site, in the early 1900's the Dutch began its restoration, and a US$21 million project begun in 1973 completed the work.

The Borobudur stupa is a massive, symetrical monument, 200 square meters in size, sitting upon a low sculptured hill. The monument represents a Buddhist cosmological model of the universe organized around the axis of mythical Mt. Meru. Starting at the eastern gateway, pilgrims circumambulate the stupa, always in a clockwise direction. Walking through nearly five kilometers of open air corridors while ascending through six square terraces and three circular ones, the pilgrim symbolically spirals upward from the everyday world to the nirvanic state of absolute nothingness. The first six terraces are filled with richly decorated relief panels in which the sculptors have carved a textbook of Buddhist doctrines and a fascinating panorama of 9th century Javanese life. Upon the upper three terraces are 72 small stupas, each containing a statue of the Buddha (these statues are usually headless; relic hunters stole many of the heads, others are in museums). Crowning the entire structure is a great central stupa. Representing Nirvana, it is empty.

Posted on 01:41 by ariwinata and filed under | 0 Comments »

Bush The Killer Diagnosed as Crazy

Bush Diagnosed as Crazy
Comment by Larry Ross, January 1, 2006

Over 3 years ago, when this article was written, Bush was diagnosed as a dry alcoholic, with probably permanent damage to his brain cells and thinking processes due to at least 20 years of hard drinking.
All the symptoms of crazy, twisted thinking and refusal to consider constructive criticism of what he wants to do, are evidence of serious mental problems. With his spoilt but distant upbringing, he believes he is entitled to do as he pleases. This is reinforced by his born-again Christian Fundamentalism. He believes he was chosen by God to lead the United States; that he gets advice from God; and that what he does is both inspired and sanctioned by God. He does not accept criticisms of this doctrine.

Within this belief system, delusional though it may be, any lie and any crime is okay if it facilitates God's will. They are not really crimes. The U.S. Constitution and International law don't apply to Bush.(Bush's twisted and distorted reasoning is always interpreted as God's will and therefor divinely inspired his followers believe)

Remember that George Bush's God is a very angry and violent Old Testament God who demanded instant obedience and worship. He thought nothing of slaughtering his enemies on grounds that would be unacceptable today.

Bush, who follows this God, believes and does the same. The fact that he is still in office, is evidence that millions of Americans believe in the same God and belief systems. So Bush's crazy and potentially suicidal for humanity behaviour is "divinely sanctioned" some people think. That makes it okay, so they gave him a second term in 2004. (He got enough votes and was able to fake the rest).

What this shows is that many Americans can be quite comfortable with Bush and automatically forgive him his crimes, so long as their particular life is not too adversely affected. Their reality is only what happens to their own family, their pocket book, neighbourhood, sports, amusements,celebrities, etc. The mass media is mainly supportive of Bush lies, crimes and wars. They tell the people what to think and what not to think. That's what the people buy.

Even so, Bush's popularity has sunk to an all-time low. Americans are beginning to wake up, but not to the most frightening facts. The media is finding it more difficult to fool the public, distract them and cover-up for Bush. But his mental problems and deficiencies, extreme dangers to the world, and major crimes remain unexposed and not discussed. The mass media have ruled such topics out-of-bounds' so to speak.

Thus if another 9/11 (supposedly terrorist) event conveniently happens in 2006, most Americans will believe Bush's explanation, endlessly repeated by the mass media. His previous big lies to make war on Iraq, widely known, will be virtually forgotten.

A terrorist event would rescue Bush from the trash bin, facilitate his next war against Iran who he would blame (no proofs needed), and spur onward the neocon plan for global empire..

This article and others under Psychopathology of Bushism, present a comprehensive portrait of Bush's mental condition and symptoms.

I invite readers to circulate this and other articles as part of the effort to expose and stop Bush before it is too late.
Larry Ross
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The Political Sutan Sjahrir (prime minister of Indonesia)


SUTAN SJAHRIR, THE SMILING DIPLOMAT

Sjahrir, son of a public prosecutor, received a Dutch education in Sumatra and Java and attended the Law Faculty at the University of Leiden. In The Netherlands he was a member of a socialist student group and secretary of the student group Perhimpunan Indonesia (“Indonesian Union”), which numbered among its members many of Indonesia’s future political leaders. He returned to the Dutch East Indies in 1931 and helped establish the Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia, a rival group to Partindo, the nationalist organization formed from remnants of the suppressed Partai Nasional Indonesia (“Indonesian Nationalist Party”), founded by Sukarno, the foremost Indonesian nationalist leader. The groups differed on the goals and means appropriate to nationalists, with Pendidikan opposed to Partindo’s concept of a united front of left-wing parties, and were divided by personal antagonisms as well.

Early in 1934 Sjahrir and Pendidikan’s coleader Mohammad Hatta were exiled by the Dutch authorities and remained isolated from Indonesian politics until the arrival of Japanese occupation forces in 1942. Sjahrir was opposed to the Japanese but chose to withdraw from public life rather than actively resist. He pressed for the country to declare independence before the Japanese surrender.

Sjahrir’s pamphlet “Perdjuangan Kita” (1945; “Our Struggle”) won for him the support of militant nationalists in the capital, as well as the office of prime minister in the postwar government at a time when executive power had been stripped from the president, then Sukarno, and given to the prime minister. That was done at Sjahrir’s instigation as he feared Sukarno’s cooperation with the Japanese would hurt the republic’s image in international opinion, on which the success of negotiations with the Dutch largely depended. Sjahrir negotiated the Linggadjati Agreement, under which the Dutch acknowledged Indonesia’s authority in Java and Sumatra.

His conciliatory policies were not in keeping with the temper of the times, however, and in February 1946 he had to resign briefly, and in June 1947 he was forced to resign permanently. He then became a member of the Indonesian delegation to the United Nations. In 1948 he formed a Socialist party, Partai Sosialis Indonesia (PSI), which opposed the Communist Party, but it failed to win popular support and was banned by Sukarno in 1960. On Jan. 17, 1962, Sjahrir was arrested on charges of conspiracy. He was held without trial until 1965, when he was allowed to travel to Switzerland for medical treatment following a stroke.
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TAN MALAKA THE LEGEND MAN

GERILYAWAN REVOLUSIONER YANG LEGENDARIS

Tan Malaka –lengkapnya Ibrahim Datuk Tan Malaka—menurut keturunannya ia termasuk suku bangsa Minangkabau. Pada tanggal 2 Juni 1897 di desa Pandang Gadang –Sumatra Barat—Tan Malaka dilahirkan. Ia termasuk salah seorang tokoh bangsa yang sangat luar biasa, bahkan dapat dikatakan sejajar dengan tokoh-tokoh nasional yang membawa bangsa Indonesia sampai saat kemerdekaan seperti Soekarno, Hatta, Syahrir, Moh.Yamin dan lain-lain.

Pejuang yang militan, radikal dan revolusioner ini telah banyak melahirkan pemikiran-pemikiran yang orisinil, berbobot dan brilian hingga berperan besar dalam sejarah perjaungan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Dengan perjuangan yang gigih maka ia mendapat julukan tokoh revolusioner yang legendaris. Pada tahun 1921 Tan Malaka telah terjun ke dalam gelanggang politik. Dengan semangat yang berkobar dari sebuah gubuk miskin, Tan Malaka banyak mengumpulkan pemuda-pemuda komunis.Pemuda cerdas ini banyak juga berdiskusi dengan Semaun (wakil ISDV) mengenai pergerakan revolusioner dalam pemerintahan Hindia Belanda. Selain itu juga merencanakan suatu pengorganisasian dalam bentuk pendidikan bagi anggota-anggota PKI dan SI (Syarekat Islam) untuk menyusun suatu sistem tentang kursus-kursus kader serta ajaran-ajaran komunis, gerakan-gerakan aksi komunis, keahlian berbicara, jurnalistik dan keahlian memimpin rakyat. Namun pemerintahan Belanda melarang pembentukan kursus- kursus semacam itu sehingga mengambil tindakan tegas bagi pesertanya.

Melihat hal itu Tan Malaka mempunyai niat untuk mendirikan sekolah-sekolah sebagai anak-anak anggota SI untuk penciptaan kader-kader baru. Juga dengan alasan pertama: memberi banyak jalan (kepada para murid) untuk mendapatkan mata pencaharian di dunia kapitalis (berhitung, menulis, membaca, ilmu bumi, bahasa Belanda, Melayu, Jawa dan lain-lain); kedua,
memberikan kebebasan kepada murid untuk mengikuti kegemaran (hobby) mereka dalam bentuk perkumpulan-perkumpulan; ketiga, untuk memperbaiki nasib kaum kromo (lemah/miskin). Untuk mendirikan sekolah itu, ruang rapat SI Semarang diubah menjadi sekolah, dan sekolah itu bertumbuh sangat cepat hingga sekolah itu semakin lama semakin besar.

Perjuangan Tan Malaka tidaklah hanya sebatas pada usaha mencerdaskan rakyat Indonesia pada saat itu, tapi juga pada gerakan-gerakan dalam melawan ketidakadilan seperti yang dilakukan para buruh terhadap pemerintahan Hindia Belanda lewat VSTP dan aksi-aksi pemogokan, disertai selebaran-selebaran sebagai alat propaganda yang ditujukan kepada rakyat agar rakyat dapat melihat adanya ketidakadilan yang diterima oleh kaum buruh.

Seperti dikatakan Tan Malaka pada apidatonya di depan para buruh “Semua gerakan buruh untuk mengeluarkan suatu pemogokan umum sebagai pernyataan simpati, apabila nanti menglami kegagalan maka pegawai yang akan diberhentikan akan didorongnya untuk berjuang dengan gigih dalam pergerakan revolusioner”. Pergulatan Tan Malaka dengan partai komunis di dunia sangatlah jelas. Ia tidak hanya mempunyai hak untuk memberi usul-usul dan dan mengadakan kritik tetapi juga hak untuk mengucapkan vetonya atas aksi-aksi yang dilakukan partai komunis di daerah kerjanya. Tan Malaka juga harus mengadakan pengawasan supaya anggaran dasar, program dan taktik dari Komintern (Komunis Internasional) dan Profintern seperti yang telah ditentukan di kongres-kongres Moskow diikuti oleh kaum komunis dunia.

Dengan demikian tanggung-jawabnya sebagai wakil Komintern lebih berat dari keanggotaannya di PKI. Sebagai seorang pemimpin yang masih sangat muda ia meletakkan tanggung jawab yang saangat berat pada pundaknya. Tan Malaka dan sebagian kawan-kawannyamemisahkan diri dan kemudian memutuskan hubungan dengan PKI, Sardjono-Alimin-Musso. Pemberontakan 1926 yang direkayasa dari Keputusan Prambanan yang berakibat bunuh diri bagi perjuangan nasional rakyat Indonesia melawan penjajah waktu itu.

Pemberontakan 1926 hanya merupakan gejolak kerusuhan dan keributan kecil di beberapa daerah di Indonesia. Maka dengan mudah dalam waktu singkat pihak penjajah Belanda dapat mengakhirinya. Akibatnya ribuan pejuang politik ditangkap dan ditahan. Ada yang disiksa, ada yang dibunuh dan banyak yang dibuang ke Boven Digul Irian Jaya. Peristiwa ini dijadikan dalih oleh Belanda untuk menangkap, menahan dan membuang setiap orang yang melawan mereka, sekalipun bukan PKI. Maka perjaungan nasional mendapat pukulan yang sangat berat dan mengalami kemunduran besar serta lumpuh selama bertahun-tahun.

Tan Malaka yang berada di luar negeri pada waktu itu,berkumpul dengan beberapa temannya di Bangkok. Di ibukota Thailand itu, bersama Soebakat dan Djamaludddin Tamin, Juni 1927 Tan Malaka memproklamasikan berdirinya Partai Republik Indonesia (PARI). Dua tahun sebelumnya Tan Malaka telah menulis “Menuju Republik Indonesia”. Itu ditunjukkan kepada para pejuang intelektual di Indonesia dan di negeri Belanda. Terbitnya buku itu pertama kali di Kowloon, Cina, April 1925. Prof. Moh. Yamin sejarawan dan pakar hukum kenamaan kita, dalam karya tulisnya “Tan Malaka Bapak Republik Indonesia” memberi komentar: “Tak ubahnya daripada Jefferson Washington merancangkan Republik Amerika Serikat sebelum kemerdekaannya tercapai atau Rizal Bonifacio meramalkan Philippina sebelum revolusi Philippina pecah….”

Ciri khas gagasan Tan Malaka adalah: (1) Dibentuk dengan cara berpikir ilmiah berdasarkan ilmu bukti, (2) Bersifat Indonesia sentris, (3) Futuristik dan (4) Mandiri, konsekwen serta konsisten. Tan Malaka menuangkan gagasan-gagasannya ke dalam sekitar 27 buku, brosur dan ratusan artikel di berbagai surat kabar terbitan Hindia Belanda. Karya besarnya “MADILOG” mengajak dan memperkenalkan kepada bangsa Indonesia cara berpikir ilmiah bukan berpikir secara kaji atau hafalan, bukan secara “Text book thinking”, atau bukan dogmatis dan bukan doktriner. Madilog merupakan istilah baru dalam cara berpikir, dengan menghubungkan ilmu bukti serta mengembangkan dengan jalan dan metode yang sesuai dengan akar dan urat kebudayaan Indonesia sebagai bagian dari kebudayaan dunia. Bukti adalah fakta dan fakta adalah lantainya ilmu bukti. Bagi filsafat, idealisme yang pokok dan pertama adalah budi (mind), kesatuan, pikiran dan penginderaan. Filsafat materialisme menganggap alam, benda dan realita nyata obyektif sekeliling sebagai yang ada, yang pokok dan yang pertama.

Bagi Madilog (Materialisme, Dialektika, Logika) yang pokok dan pertama adalah bukti, walau belum dapat diterangkan secara rasional dan logika tapi jika fakta sebagai landasan ilmu bukti itu ada secara konkrit, sekalipun ilmu pengetahuan secara rasional belum dapat enjelaskannya dan belum dapat menjawab apa, mengapa dan bagaimana. Semua karya Tan Malaka danpermasalahannya dimulai dengan Indonesia. Konkritnya rakyat Indonesia, situasi dan kondisi nusantara serta kebudayaan, sejarah lalu diakhiri dengan bagaimana mengarahkan pemecahan masalahnya.

Cara tradisi nyata bangsa Indonesia dengan latar belakang sejarahnya bukanlah cara berpikir yang “text book thinking” dan untuk mencapai Republik Indonesia sudah dicetuskan sejak tahun 1925 lewat “Naar de Republiek Indonesia”. Jika kita membaca karya-karya Tan Malaka yang meliputi semua bidang kemasyarakatan, kenegaraan, politik,ekonomi, sosial, kebudayaan sampai kemiliteran(“Gerpolek”-Gerilya-Politik dan Ekonomi, 1948), maka akan kita temukan benang putih keilmiahan dan keIndonesiaan serta benang merah kemandirian, sikap konsekwen dan konsisten yang direnda jelas dalam gagasan-gagasan serta perjuangan implementasinya.Peristiwa 3 Juli 1946 yang didahului dengan penangkapan dan penahanan Tan Malaka bersama pimpinan Persatuan Perjuangan, di dalam penjara tanpa pernah diadili selama dua setengah tahun.

Setelah meletus pemberontakan FDR/PKI di Madiun, September 1948 dengan pimpinan Musso dan Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka dikeluarkan begitu saja dari penjara akibat peristiwa itu. Di luar, setelah mengevaluasi situasi yang amat parah bagi republik Indonesia akibat Perjanjian Linggarjati 1947 dan Renville 1948, yang merupakan buah dari hasil diplomasi Syahrir dan Perdana Menteri AmirSyarifuddin, Tan Malaka merintis pembentukan Partai MURBA, 7 November 1948 di Yogyakarta. Dan pada tahun 1949 tepatnya bulan Februari Tan Malaka gugur, hilang tak tentu rimbanya, mati tak tentu kuburnya ditengah-tengah perjuangan “Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi” di Pethok, Kediri, Jawa Timur. Namun berdasarkan keputusan Presiden RI No. 53, yang ditandatangani Presiden Sukarno 28 Maret 1963 menetapkan bahwa Tan Malaka adalah seorang pahlawan kemerdekaan Nasional. (Bek)
BERGELAP-GELAPLAH DALAM TERANG, BERTERANG-TERANGLAH DALAM GELAP ! (TAN MALAKA)

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Tan Malaka (1922) Communism and Pan-Islamism


This is a speech made by the Indonesian Marxist Tan Malaka at the Fourth Congress of the Communist International in November 12, 1922. Taking issue with the theses drafted by Lenin and adopted at the Second Congress, which had emphasised the need for a "struggle against Pan-Islamism", Tan Malaka argued for a more positive approach. Tan Malaka (1897-1949) was elected chairman of the Communist Party of Indonesia in 1921, but the following year he was forced to leave the East Indies by the colonial authorities. After the proclamation of independence in August 1945, he returned to Indonesia to participate in the struggle against Dutch colonialism. He became a leader of the Partai Murba (Proletarian Party), formed in 1948 to organise working class opposition to the Soekarno government. In February 1949 Tan Malaka was captured by the Indonesian army and executed.


Comrades! After hearing the speeches made by General Zinoviev, General Radek and other European comrades, and having regard to the importance, for us in the East as well, of the question of the united front, I think that I have to speak up, in the name of the Communist Party of Java, for the thousands of millions of the oppressed peoples of the East.

I have to put a few questions to the two generals. Perhaps General Zinoviev was not thinking about a united front on Java; perhaps our united front is something different. But the decision of the Second Congress of the Communist International means in practice that we have got to form a united front with revolutionary nationalism. Given, as we must recognise, that forming a united front is necessary in our country too, our united front cannot be with Social Democrats but has to be with revolutionary nationalists. But tactics used by the nationalists against imperialism very often differ from ours; take, for instance, the boycott and the Muslim liberation struggle, Pan-Islamism. These are the two forms which I am particularly considering, so I ask the following questions. First, are we to support the national boycott movement or not? Second, are we to support Pan-Islamism, yes or no? If yes, how far are we to go?

The boycott, I must admit, is certainly not a Communist method, but it is one of the sharpest weapons available in the situation of politico-military subjugation in the East. Within the last two years we have seen the success of the Egyptian people's 1919 boycott against British imperialism, and again of the great Chinese boycott at the end of 1919 and the beginning of 1920. The most recent boycott movement has been in British India. We can take it that in the next few years other forms of boycott will be employed in the East. We know that it is not our method; it is a petty bourgeois method, something that belongs to the nationalist bourgeoisie. We can say more; that the boycott means support for home-grown capitalism; but we have also seen that following on the boycott movement in British India, there are now eighteen hundred leaders languishing in jail, that the boycott has generated a very revolutionary atmosphere, indeed that the boycott movement actually forced the British government to ask Japan for military assistance, in case it should develop into an armed uprising. We also know that the Mahommedan leaders in India - Dr. Kirchief, Hasret Mahoni and the Ali brothers - are in reality nationalists; we had no rising to record when Gandhi was arrested. But people in India know very well what every revolutionary there knows: that a local rising can only end in defeat, because we have no weapons or other military material there, hence the question of the boycott movement will, now or in the future, become a pressing one for us Communists. Both in India and in Java we are aware that many Communists are inclined to proclaim a boycott movement on Java, perhaps because Communist ideas emanating from Russia have been so long forgotten, or perhaps because there was such an unleashing of Communist feeling in British India as could challenge the whole movement. In any case we are faced with the question: Are we to support this tactic, yes or no? And how far can we go?

Pan-Islamism is a long story. First of all I will speak about our experiences in the East Indies where we have cooperated with the Islamists. We have in Java a very large organisation with many very poor peasants, the Sarekat Islam (Islamic League). Between 1912 and 1916 this organisation had one million members, perhaps as many as three or four million. It was a very large popular movement, which arose spontaneously and was very revolutionary.

Until 1921 we collaborated with it. Our party, consisting of 13,000 members, went into this popular movement and carried out propaganda there. In 1921 we succeeded in getting Sarekat Islam to adopt our programme. The Islamic League too agitated in the villages for control of the factories and for the slogan: All power to the poor peasants, all power to the proletarians! So Sarekat Islam made the same propaganda as our Communist Party, only sometimes under another name.

But in 1921 a split occurred as a result of clumsy criticism of the leadership of Sarekat Islam. The government through its agents in Sarekat Islam exploited this split, and it also exploited the decision of the Second Congress of the Communist International: Struggle against Pan-Islamism! What did they say to the simple peasants? They said: See, the Communists not only want to split, they want to destroy your religion! That was too much for a simple Muslim peasant. The peasant thought to himself: I have lost everything in this world, must I lose my heaven as well? That won’t do! This was how the simple Muslims thought. The propagandists among the government agents exploited this very successfully. So we had a split. [Chairman: Your time is up.]

I have come from the East Indies, and travelled for forty days. [Applause.]
The Sarekat-Islamists believe in our propaganda and remain with us in their stomachs, to use a popular expression, but in their hearts they remain with the Sarekat Islam, with their heaven. For heaven is something we cannot give them. Therefore, they boycotted our meetings and we could not carry on propaganda any more.
Since the beginning of last year we have worked towards re-establishing the link with Sarekat Islam. At our congress in December last year we said that the Muslims in the Caucasus and other countries, who cooperate with the Soviets and struggle against international capitalism, understand their religion better, and we also said that, if they want to make propaganda for their religion, they can do so, though they should not do it in meetings but in the mosques.

We have been asked at public meetings: Are you Muslims – yes or no? Do you believe in God – yes or no? How did we answer this? Yes, I said, when I stand before God I am a Muslim, but when I stand before men I am not a Muslim [loud applause], because God said there are many devils among men! [Loud applause.] Thus we inflicted a defeat on their leaders with the Qur’an in our hands, and at our congress last year we compelled the leaders of the Sarekat Islam, through their own members, to cooperate with us.

When a general strike broke out in March last year, the Muslim workers needed us, as we have the railwaymen under our leadership. The Sarekat Islam leaders said: You want to cooperate with us, so you must help us, too. Of course we went to them, and said: Yes, your God is powerful, but he has said that on this earth the railwaymen are more powerful! [Loud applause.] The railwaymen are God’s executive committee in this world. [Laughter.]

But this does not settle the question, and if we have another split we may be sure that the government agents will be there again with their Pan-Islamism. So the question of Pan-Islamism is a very immediate one.

But now one must first understand what the word Pan-Islamism really means. Once, it had a historical significance and meant that Islam must conquer the whole world, sword in hand, and that this must take place under the leadership of the Caliph, and the Caliph must be of Arabian origin. About 400 years after the death of Mohammed the Muslims split into three great states and thus the Holy War lost its significance for the entire Muslim world. It thus lost the meaning that, in the name of God, the Caliph and the Muslim religion should conquer the whole world, because the Caliph of Spain said, I am the true Caliph, I must carry the banner, and the Caliph of Egypt said the same, and the Caliph of Baghdad said, I am the real Caliph, since I am from the Arabian tribe of Quraish.

So Pan-Islamism no longer has its original meaning, but now has in practice an entirely different meaning. Today, Pan-Islamism signifies the national liberation struggle, because for the Muslims Islam is everything: not only religion, but also the state, the economy, food, and everything else. And so Pan-Islamism now means the brotherhood of all Muslim peoples, and the liberation struggle not only of the Arab but also of the Indian, the Javanese and all the oppressed Muslim peoples. This brotherhood means the practical liberation struggle not only against Dutch but also against English, French and Italian capitalism, therefore against world capitalism as a whole. That is what Pan-Islamism now means in Indonesia among the oppressed colonial peoples, according to their secret propaganda – the liberation struggle against the different imperialist powers of the world.

This is a new task for us. Just as we want to support the national struggle, we also want to support the liberation struggle of the very combative, very active 250 million Muslims living under the imperialist powers. Therefore I ask once again: Should we support Pan-Islamism, in this sense?
So I end my speech. (Lively applause).

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Mao Zedong Dictator in Chinese




Mao Zedong (1893-1976)
Chinese political leader, poet and statesman, founder of People's Republic of China. Mao Zedong's ideas varied between flexible pragmatism and utopian visions, exemplified in the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.His literary production contains mainly speeches, essays and poems. Mao published some 40 poems written in classical tradition with political message.



As a poet Mao continued the tradition, in which educated people composed poetry simply as an accomplishment. His texts showed talent, and he did not use the most banal idioms familiar from the works of Communist writers of his own generation. However, it is possible that Mao did not write all the texts credited to him. In his early works, Mao showed the influence of Tang (618-907) and Sung (960-1127) poets. On his walk across the Middle Kingdom, he recorded its modern history and used the mystical past to to illuminate the present. In several poems he depicted the first battles of the peasant army and national events. After 1949 the poems became more meditative.
Worshiped by millions, Mao is also considered one of the 20th century most brutal dictators. It has been estimated that he was responsile for well over 70 million deaths.

Mao was born in the village of Shaoshan in the Hunan Province of China. At the age of six he began to work on his parents' farm. His father, Mao Jen-sheng, was a peasant farmer, who beat his sons regularly. Mao's mother, Wen Chi-mei, was a devout Buddhist. After graduating from a teacher's training in Changsha, Mao continued his studies at the University of Beijing, where he worked as an assistant at the library. Under the influence of Li Dazhao and Chen Duxiu, China's first major Marxist figures, Mao turned to Marxism. In 1921 Mao became a founding member of the Chinese Communist Party. During Bertrand Russell's visit to Hunan, he argued for the legitimacy of seizing power by force against Russell's reformist views. In the 1920s he concentrated on political work in his native Province and Jianxi Province. His highly pragmatic strategy was one of the main influences on Fidel Castro, when in 1959 he was able to take over Cuba with Che Guevara.



"The people are like water and the army is like fish," Mao wrote in Aspects of China's Anti-Japanese Struggle (1948). He recognized the revolutionary potential of the peasantry. Marx and Lenin had seen in their urban doctrine the working class as the leading revolutionary force. However, when first articulated, Mao's views were rejected by the Party in favor of orthodox policy. Mao himself was also an exception to the rule: he was one of only three peasants to gain control of his country throughout its long history - the others were the founders of the Han and Ming dynasties.

Under Comitern policy of cooperating with the Nationalists, Mao held important posts with the Guomingdang. Following the Guomindang massacre of Communist in 1927, Mao established a base in Jiangxi Province. There he directed his first major purge against dissidents.

Mao's fourth wife Chiang Ch'ing (1914-1991) was an actor. She gained first fame in Shanghai among others in Ibsen's play A Doll's House. In 1933 she joined the Communist Party, meeting Mao in Yenan and marrying him. Mao was more than twenty years older than she and had eight children. During Cultural Revolution she became an enormous force, but after Mao's death she was imprisoned with her three radical associates Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan. The group was called the Gang of Four. It is told, that on the day of their arrest every wine shop in Beijing was sold out of alcohol. Chiang Ch'ing committed suicide in 1991.

After the break with the Nationalist Party, Mao started the guerrilla tactics, stating later that "political power grows out of the barrel of a gun." In 1934 the Nationalist government destroyed the Jiangxi Soviet, and the Communist forces started the legendary retreat and the Long March, an anabasis of 6,000 miles which has been compared to the march of Alexander the Great. In 1935 Mao's political power increased when he was elected Chairman of the Politburo. Mao's rural based guerrilla warfare led to the fall of the government. To fund the Red Army, Mao grew opium.
During World War II Mao did not fight the Japanese, but planned to divide China with Japan. The new People's Republic of China was proclaimed in 1949. The Communists were headed by Mao, who gained the upper hand over his Russian-backed adversaries. In 1949 Mao met Stalin, but after Nikita Khrushchev in his famous speech denounced Stalinism in 1956, China broke with Moscow. Stalin held Mao's son Anying hostage for for years. The "thaw" period in the Soviet Union (1955-64) was noted also in China and in 1956 Mao launched the slogan "let a hundred flowers bloom".

Mao's prestige was reinforced by his "Thought." He labelled the ideas of his opponents as "mechanical" or "dogmatic." "Be resourceful, look at all sides of a problem, test ideas by experiment, and work hard for the common good," Mao said. The basis of his ideology was Marxism-Leninism, but he adapted it to Chinese conditions, and partly he followed such CCP's theoreticians as Chen Boda and Ai Siqi. The support of the Communists among intellectuals also was rising. Zhang Dongsun, who was the most perceptive philosopher of the modern China, saw that Communists were China's only practical way out.

In his 'Talks at the Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art' (1942, Tsai Yenan wen-i tso-t'an hui shang it chiang-hua) Mao issued a set of perspective guidelines for literature, in which he emphasized the status folk tradition and oral and performing literature. The novel of land reform were followed by novels on agricultural collectivization, the central theme of art at that time. Novelists also praised the Party, the revolution, and the people. Some writers dealt with the heroism of soldiers during the Korean war. In 1958 Mao started the "Great Leap Forward", industrial and agricultural program, which did not have the success he expected. He urged to construct backyard steel furnaces to gain the Western steel production. This unrealistic project was not without a certain good will, although results were tragic: about 30 million people died in the famine, when ill-trained peasants were forced to carry out the gigantic industrialization plan.

Following the disaster of the "Great Leap Forward", a new series of novels on communization appeared by authors with peasant backgrounds, among them Liu Quing and Hao Ran. The reading public was more drawn to a wave of historical novels celebrating the history of the communist revolution. Most notable were Luo Guangbin's and Yang Yiyan's works. Nevertheless, none of the new novels of socialist realism proved sufficiently politically correct to survive the censorship during the power struggle of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

By 1965 Mao feared that he was losing control. He appealed to the populace against the Party apparatus and consolidated again his power by the Cultural Revolution. Red Guards were formed in 1966 and sent into the countryside to force bureaucrats, professors, technicians, intellectuals, and other nonpeasants into rural work. In the vengeful outburst of hatred and ignorance, tens of thousands were murdered or forced to give up their jobs, and China's economy suffered. "A revolution is not the same as inviting people to dinner, or writing as essay, or painting a picture... A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another." Mao had said (from Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, 1965) The publishing of new books and the introduction of new ideas virtually stopped. Except for the works of the deceased Lu Xun, all modern works were banned. From 1966 for the following six years publication of art journals was suspended. Art schools were closed and artists disbanded. Large numbers of old temples and monuments were smashed or vandalized. In the end, the disorder was so bad that the army was called in to repress the Red Guards and other fractions. After the chaos, Mao decided open doors to the West. China's Relationship with the United States were strained, but in 1972 President Richard Nixon journeyed to China, and broke the ice. All practical negotiations were handled by Zhou Enlai and Henry Kissinger; at the meeting with Nixon, Mao kept the discussion on a fairly abstract level.

According to Mao's personal physician Zhisui Li (in The Private Life of Chairman Mao), the leader of China used heavily barbiturates although otherwise he was in excellent health. Later in life Mao developed paranoia; Li Zhisui mentions also Mao's aversion to bathing. His personal life became secretive and in many ways morally corrupt. Lin Biao, who was designated by Mao as his successor, died under mysterious circumstances in 1969. After Lin's fall, the prime minister Zhou Enlai was a moderator between the opposing camps of Liu Shaoqi and Mao. Zhou died in 1975, and the leadership of the moderates was taken over by Deng Xiaoping. Mao's death in 1976 broke his wife's hold on power. Mao had smoked cigarettes his whole life, and he had also suffered from bronchitis, pneumonia, and emphysema. Aaccording to some sources, Mao's last words were: "I feel ill; call the doctors."
Mao's ”The Little red Book” or Mao Zedong on People's War (1967) became in the 1960s the ultimate authority for political correctness. It was carried about by millions during "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" of 1968. The plastic-bound work, edited by the minister of defense, Lin Piao, consisted of quotations from several Mao's writings, among them Significance of Agrarian Reforms in China, Strategic Problems of China's Revolutionary War, On the Rectification of Incorrect Ideas in the Party, A Single Spark Can Start a Prairie Fire, On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People. Another compendium, also edited by Lin Piao, was entitled Long Live Mao Tse-Tung Thought.

Mao's conception of democracy was based on the leading role of the Communist party. Its the tightly disciplined organization would lead the masses. He was hostile to Confucianism, which he saw as the central ideology of China's past. Later in his career "The Great Helmsman" compared himself with Chin Shih-huang, the first Emperor, who unified China in 221 B.C.

For the most part, Mao's own philosophical work in the 1930s was summaries of Soviet texts. Two essays, 'On practice' and 'On contradiction' were printed in revised form in 1950 and 1952. These works were studied and emulated throughout China. Like Lenin, Mao made a distinction between antagonist and non-antagonist contradictions, but Mao's thought was partly derived from the Chinese system of yin and yang. He stated that contradictions would continue to arise in society even after socialist revolution. With this claim he supported his doctrine of permanent revolution, which was earlier launched by Trotsky. His success in guerrilla warfare led him to declare in 1947, that "the atom bomb is a paper tiger".

Mao's thoughts were also popular among Western intellectuals and radicals, who opposed "Soviet revisionism." American journalist E.P. Snow made Chinese Communist movement known already in the 1930s with his book Red Star Over China (1937). Snow's personal relationships with the leaders of China continued decades. He was granted permission travel in 1960 around the country. In his book The Other Side of the River Snow failed to report of China's 1959-61 famine, possibly the worst in history. Much of the grain which was produced in China during this period was traded for the Soviet weapons-technology. However, Mao's popularity has been enduring even after his death.

For further reading: Mao: The Unknown Story by Jung Chang and Jon Halliday (2005); Chinese Marxism by Adrian Chan (2003); Children's Literature in China: From Lu Xun to Mao Zedong by Mary Ann Farquhar (1999); Mao Zedong by Jonathan D. Spence (1999); China's Road to Disaster by Frederick C. Teiwes and Warren Sun (1998); The 100 Most Influential Books Ever Written by Martin Seymour-Smith (1998); Battling Western Imperialism: Mao, Stalin, and the United States by Michael M. Sheng (1998); Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine by Jasper Becker (1997); The Private Life of Chairman Mao by Zhisui Li (1996, paperback); Mao Zedong by Rebecca Stefoff (1996, for young adults); No Tears for Mao by Niu-Niu et al (1995); Burying Mao by Richard Baum (1994); China Without Mao by Immanuel C.Y. Hsu (1990); The Thought of Mao Tse-Tung by Stuart Schram (1989, paperback); Inheriting Tradition by K. Louie (1986); Marxism, Maoism, and Utopianism by Maurice J. Meisner (1982); Chinese Thought, From Confucius to Mao Ts-E-Tung by Herrlee Glessner Glee (1971, paperback); Red Star over China by E.P. Snow (1937, rev. ed. 1968) - See also: Mao Tun - Suom.: Maolta on julkaistu runosuomennoksia antologiassa Itä on punainen. Muita käännöksiä: Mao Tse-tung; Runot (suom. Pertti Nieminen), essee- ja puhekokoelma Teoksia 1-2, Otteita puhemies Mao Tse-tungin teoksista, ”Punainen kirja” (1967)
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